Occasional lies

Let’s get something immediately out of the way: [very occasionally] Friendly-traceback will lie to you. When it does so, it will indicate it to you; however, it will do so in a way that might be easily overlooked.

Have a look at the following screen captures, all taken using version 0.0.8a (Python version: 3.7.3 on Win 32). (Later screenshots will normally include Friendly-traceback version.)

First, we show a traceback generated with level set to 0: with this choice, the output only includes the normal Python traceback.

Friendly Python traceback

Next, we show a traceback generated with level set to 9: this corresponds to the “simulated” Python traceback as determined by Friendly-traceback. The traceback is identical to the true Python traceback as above.

Friendly Python traceback

So far, Friendly-traceback has not lied. Let’s look at another example, first run directly with Python.

Friendly Python traceback

Because the traceback contains only a single step, Python did not include the standard header Traceback (most recent call last):.

Here’s the “simulated” Python traceback generated by Friendly-traceback.

Friendly Python traceback

Notice how the standard header appears, but preceeded by the word “Simulated”.

Here’s the true Python traceback generated (displayed with level 0) while this same script is run by Friendly-traceback:

Friendly Python traceback

This traceback contains a lot more information, as Friendly-traceback uses Python’s runpy module as well as its own functions to run this script - all of which are shown in this traceback. To avoid confusing users, when it is desired to include a Python traceback in the information provided by Friendly-traceback, the default will be to include a “simulated” traceback, where all traces of Friendly-traceback’s own functions, as well as Python’s runpy module, will be removed. When such calls are removed, the traceback header will have the word “Simulated” inserted first. If no calls are removed, like in the very first example, then the word “Simulated” does not appear.

You can lie too

Sometimes, you might wish to exclude other modules from the simulated Python traceback. For example, in Friendly-traceback’s console, the Python codeop.py module might sometimes appear due to the way we process the users’ code. To instruct Friendly-traceback from including this module in the “simulated” traceback, we need to have the following two lines of code:

import codeop